4D 5D and 6D BIM

4D, 5D and 6D BIM

4D BIM adds time-related information to 3D BIM models to enable detailed scheduling of the construction process. 5D BIM adds costs to BIM components to assist the calculation of total project costs. 6D BIM includes lifecycle properties to enable optimised asset management. 

4D Building Information Modelling (4D BIM) associates time-related information to the various components of a 3D BIM model. Using 4D BIM, construction professionals can make detailed time schedules showing the lead time, progress and interdependencies between different work tasks. Moreover, they can optimise the use of space on the construction site and visualise how the project will progress over time.

5D BIM adds cost data to the BIM model. Each component in the BIM model is associated with cost data, e.g. purchase cost, running cost and renewal cost. By multiplying the quantity of each component type with the cost of each component, the BIM model can calculate the total project cost. In the planning and design phases, 5D BIM may assist construction professionals in producing more accurate cost estimates and assessing how potential changes may impact cost. During construction projects, 5D BIM can be used to compare predicted and actual expenditures, and identify issues.

6D BIM adds data on lifecycle properties to the BIM model. This data may include information on component manufacturer, installation date, maintenance requirements, lifespan expectations and instructions for optimal performance. The data is built into the BIM model and passed over to the building operators at the end of a construction project for them to optimise building performance and predict maintenance costs. The 6D BIM model may also be used during the design process to support decision making and move the focus from capital costs of construction to operation cost of the built asset.

Benefits and challenges

  • Faster construction process due to 4D BIM-enabled efficient construction schedules, reduced need for last-minute on-site coordination and rework.
  • Improved communication with local stakeholders as a 4D visualisations are easier to comprehend than e.g. 2D drawings.
  • The BIM model varies slightly from reality, which may cause the 5D BIM cost calculations to be imprecise. Often the validation of cost managers is necessary.
  • Improved building performance and energy efficiency, due to the use of 6D BIM in design and operation phases of construction

Application examples

In Germany, the large construction contractor STRABAG used 5D BIM to construct a 246 m tall elevator test tower for the elevator manufacturer ThyssenKrupp. Using BIM, STRABAG created optimised time schedules that allowed the tower to grow 3.6 meters per day, and extracted information of the amount of materials that needed ordering. Moreover, 5D BIM principles was used to track the progress of construction on-site (bim5d.strabag.com).

Development stage

 4D BIM is more commonly applied on construction projects than 5D BIM. Both of these technologies are commercially available on the market. Cases demonstrating the application of 6D BIM on actual construction projects are quite recent.

Construction impact

  • 4D BIM will mainly affect the design and construction phases of construction projects.
  • 5D BIM will affect all phases of construction projects: design, construction and operation. 
  • 6D BIM will mainly affect the design and operation phases of construction.

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5D BIM according to the B1M

6D BIM according to the B1M 

24 JULI 2024